Tuesday, November 6, 2012

Torch Fire Assaying Technique

Charles Butler Butler Lab has developed a test procedure to be used as a supplement to the oven titration minerals of noble metals. It is fast and inexpensive, most tests require 15 to 20 minutes.

It is an excellent tool perspective and field guide for drilling teams. It can also be used to test samples Mill Run and tails, leach solutions, chemical precipitates and any noble metal salts, including silver, gold and metals group platinum. It is ideal for the dry or wet assay concentrates its recovery system and the flow of water being used in said system. This water, when working with the holders of the minerals soluble in water, taking on board some of its values, unless measures are taken to save them.

The infinite number of possible settings torch flame to create reducing or oxidizing flames when they are needed. Consequently, only two streams are necessary and we rarely have a failure. When difficulties arise, we become aware of it in a minute or two, which allows the tester a chance to make the necessary adjustments of the torch, or the addition of either stream type.

1. When the dosage for the "noble metals" to free our metal values, you must create a liquid fusion "load testing." We do this by combining our sample milled with the appropriate dosage and flow even in a place crucible. then our adjusted oxyacetylene torch oxygen acetylene good value, we create the "reducing flame" necessary to liquefy the assay. intense heat of the flame applied directly down on the dosage, creates temperatures above 2000 degrees centigrade, which makes it possible to recover all the noble metals, if present.

2. It takes a "collector" to collect and store all the gold liquid, money or platinum group values ​​the sample tested may have contained. We accomplish this with our ingredients flow "litharge" powder of lead oxide. When you correctly, the warmth of our gear changes torch flame that lead litharge liquefied. This lead alloys, or combined with molten metals, except osmium noble, a group of platinum. During the dosage specifically for platinum metals, most testers add a silver medal "Inquart", either as a sheet or a yarn to act as their collector, that money alloy with all the platinum group metals. In addition, the extreme effects of PGM have on silver beads "," made to facilitate the recognition that the platinum metals are present.

3. The merger process must produce an advance of 1/8-5/32 inch diameter "button." This advance will start to appear as real shiny beads in 30 to 40 seconds after the application of the torch flame reducing the load test if everything works as expected. Failure of tiny lead balls, says "trouble." A few difficult ores require the addition of a second test measurement flow. When the merger is complete (all gas) and all the lead is deposited at the bottom of the crucible is empty "dairy", leaving the key lead in the crucible of "slagging"

4. This step is the main scorifying the button to remove the base metals "(" metals other than the noble metals) that have been picked up by the molten lead. This is achieved by adding a pinch of borax glass, then the application of strongly oxidizing flame torch. The main button to ignite, burn at over 3000 degrees centigrade. This intense heat changes the base metals "slag" or ash, which connects the molten glass as borax slag for disposal. The lead button a little smaller, containing all the values ​​that were present noble metals are poured on to an aluminum plate for cooling.

5. The next step is to "cup" button to dispose of the head. Our cups are small cups of bone ash. Porosity adsorbs liquid litharge, created by the oxidation of the lead button with the torch flame oxidant. Cupelling is completed, when the button, increasingly small, forms a ridge, by refusing to reduce the size further. After the torch is removed, most pearls will "Blick", or flash, just as they begin to cool, the moment they change from a liquid to a solid. These beads are called "golden pearls" because they can contain all or part of the precious metals, silver, gold, platinum, palladium, iridium, osmium, rhodium and ruthenium. The tester must determine that additional testing.

All measurements and calculations are based on the volumetric principle, instead of by weight. That, since the scales sufficiently accurate for this work would be very expensive and inappropriate for use outside. A teaspoon accurately calibrated is used to measure the test material. Spoon five times larger is used for measurement of the flow. Noble metals are recovered in the form of a small round bead, its diameter is measured with a power 40X optical comparator, instead of weighing to determine the value of ore produced them. Through measurement and use our "solution fades," most of the minerals can be evaluated. However, some pearls need to be "split" with nitric acid and distilled water to remove the silver medal, while rebeaded before their ore can be evaluated. fading procedure lets us know when the separation is necessary. Indeed, separation is rarely necessary, because at least 90% of the tests can be evaluated through the use of natural observation and the "Procedure pearl fade." It easily identifies all the beads containing 75% or more, money and lets you know the approximate silver content ranging from 75% to 100%. The results are expressed in troy ounces "" silver or gold and platinum group metals per ton of materials that are analyzed.

The following facts, by comparing the assay procedure torch with conventional fire assay furnace, will also indicate the ways in which this technique has advanced the art for the prospector and miner.

1. There is no oven heat mass, only a small test weighing a few grams of pot and two ounces.

2. "Load merge" in the conventional test, just sits there, inside the crucible, without the benefit of any significant mechanical agitation to ensure that the molten lead comes in contact with the melt together during fusion. In our method, the crucible is manually shaken around in a circular motion, and in addition, the flame is used to stir the melt, ensuring complete alloy of lead and precious metals contained within.

3. The process eliminates the Elimination of All beads cups, cleaning and weighing. It is a daunting task at best.

4. The whole process is carried out under the visual observation, from beginning to end. This allows immediate adjustment, if necessary, to correct problems caused by certain minerals annoying.

5. The lightweight, mobile devices can be taken to a field site if necessary.

6. With the test procedure of the flame can develop, demonstrate and promote its gold, silver or platinum property.

7. Probably the most important is the fact that we receive a reply in minutes instead of hours, days, or even weeks.

J-Tech (Jensen Technologies, LLC) has developed a capacity to full scale fire test. Please inquire for availability.

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Simple methods for the treatment of gold

The easiest way and the cheapest place for the artisanal miner to recover fine gold concentrates can be done in six simple steps. You will need a plastic pan, distilled water, household lye, an ounce of mercury, nitric acid, a Pyrex measuring cup, safety goggles, rubber gloves and apron rubber, a flat copper bar or a copper foil and assorted sizes of bottles of gold. You may also wish to use a magnet minor. If you have a glass rock, you will need a piece of steel hexagonal bar that fits into the groove ball bearings or more stainless steel.

Place concentrated food in a plastic gold pan (about half full) and cover concentrates with distilled water. Add a tablespoon of detergent for cleaning concentrates and stir the liquid around for several minutes. This will remove surface impurities such as dirt and oil, gold. If you have a glass rock used instead. Fill the glass 1/3-1/2 full, cover with water, add 1 tablespoon of laundry for her, and let it run for about an hour.

Pour the water at load and add fresh water to it, and add one ounce of mercury.
ATTENTION! When using detergent, you should wear goggles and rubber gloves (and a rubber apron is a good idea, too) to avoid having any spilled or splashed on skin or in eyes.

ATTENTION! When using the mercury, you should wear goggles and rubber gloves (and a rubber apron is a good idea, too) to avoid having any spilled or splashed on skin or in eyes.

ATTENTION! Do not inhale vapors from mercury or laundry!

Slowly stir the contents with mercury. As the mercury moves around the stove, it will resume all the finest gold in the pan. The more gold there is, the steeper the mercury becomes. If you use a dryer, do the same thing, but in a glass, you can add a stainless steel hexagonal bar to ride inside, or more stainless steel ball bearings. The steel bar will crush the black sand, and free gold, which is fixed on the black sand. Run the drum for at least three hours.

Once you have collected all the gold pan from the black sand beach, or use a magnet in a plastic bag to retrieve the black sand, leaving only the mercury load of gold and mercury. Mercury free roll easily, where mercury laden gold is rigid and does not run well. Place your container mercury inside another pot of gold, and mercury free throw in the container. Using another pot it keeps spreading on the floor or ground. If you spill mercury on the floor (carpet or living room), you will be sniffing evaporation for years!

Now that you have a ball of solid gold laden mercury in the plastic bowl, rinse them in a glass measuring cup. (I buy pie pans and cups pyrex in thrift stores all the time.) Now add enough water to cover the ball of mercury. Work outside and the wind, add a few drops of nitric acid (usually available in small bottles in stores prospecting). Continue to add nitric acid until you get a bubbling or fizzing action against mercury (avoid breathing vapors!). The acid dissolves the mercury and traces of silver. After a while, stops and effervescent at the bottom of your cup is a blob of bronze metallic color is gold! You can get your mercury dissolved in nitric acid by placing a copper bar or flat sheet of copper in acid and let stand overnight. The next day, the mercury is removed from the solution and set itself on copper and then you can scratch the mercury copper and put it in your storage container.

Gently pour the remaining liquid and neutralize the acid with baking soda, a little at a time until you get no reaction of the acid and baking soda. Gently rinse the gold medal in the cup with fresh water, avoiding hard jet that could wash right Gold Cup. Let it sit somewhere until it all dried up. Now you can use the method you prefer to transfer your gold to cut your bottles in gold.
Fusion and make a button Doré

When you think you have enough saved this fine flour gold and want to make a "button", the following procedure works well. You will need a briquette charcoal, a little borax, and a propane torch.

Cut a small depression in a piece of charcoal just large enough to hold your gold. You can use a charcoal briquette if you start by flattening the top and bottom of the briquette to not tip or wobble.

Put your fine gold in depression.

Turn your propane torch flame and play on gold. Gold has a relatively high melting point, so it may take some time. Continue with the flame until a bright red "pearl".
ATTENTION! Some propane torches are used to flaring a little when you push down range flame. Make sure you have a low flame and propane tank is at a small angle before passing the flame on gold. A sudden thrust at this point could blow your gold right out of the hole, so it fit.

Keep the flame of gold, add a pinch of borax to gold, and mount the heat slightly and carefully. As gold becomes warmer, it changes color to a bright greenish orange to approach melting it. All fine gold particles coalesce into a luminous ball.

Remove from heat and let cool slowly on its own. After cooling, you have your first Gold button and it will be nice and bright and shiny. Fine gold is pure gold and because we used nitric acid earlier, we reduced some of the money that was allied to gold, which makes it even more pure. This button Doré could run 95 - to 98-percent pure, with traces of silver and copper.
Creating Nugget Jewelry

Creating chips for making jewelry is just a way to double or triple the value of your gold. You will need a glass cup measure Pyrerx, stainless steel tweezers, and some sulfuric or hydrochloric (muriatic) acid (you can buy sulfuric acid in some stores prospecting or pool-supply stores).

Fill your cup half full glass with sulfuric acid (see above cautions on the use of acids). After you melt the gold block charcoal as in step 4 above, the block quickly resume charcoal and pour molten gold button in the cup of acid. As it cools quickly, it forms interesting shapes. Whenever you do this, it is a different form. You can make small earrings, or more for pendants, etc.

Remove false "nugget" with stainless steel tweezers and rinse with tap water. If the texture is too "rough" looking, you can machine your "nugget" in a glass with water and sand to smooth edges and give it a more natural look.

Pour the acid back into its container and rinse your glass cup with water.
Note: Remember, a little home-made nugget is solid gold, not plated! To sell your gold as buttons Doré, it is necessary to first dose. To sell to a dealer, you could lose 12 percent or more of the spot price. Jewelry making good, you can not do anything other than triple the value of gold! If you had one ounce 1/4 gold, 95 per cent pure, it would be worth $ 95 spot price of say $ 400 per ounce. Now, subtract costs 12 percent buyer and you end up with only $ 83.60. Taking that same ounce quarter of gold, creating a "nugget" out of it, then make jewelry out of it, you can get $ 200 to $ 300 for it! Quite a difference!
Another note on the black sands: Sometimes black sands carry gold values ​​which can not be seen due to impurities or chemical bond with some other minerals, such as selenium and tellurium, which should be broken chemically to reveal the gold medal. The money is not money predictive in nature, but rather a dark gray to black. Platinum has actually been dumped because he was not seen. The best thing is to take a sample well represented down to a test of fire, or make a chemical dosing yourself. At the very least, get a pestle and mortar (cast iron), a sample crush to dust, and pan to see if there is any color. But never throw away black sands, unless you are sure it is empty of anything of value. In fact, if you had 55 gallons dozen of it, you could make a tidy sum of money!

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Thursday, October 4, 2012

Fire Assaying

Fire Assaying

Fire Assaying  , in use for thousands of years, still stands the test of time. The following summary of the process is derived principally from "strength", by Jim Steinberg in Mining Artifact Collector. The article was written from a historical point of view, but the process is the same as the dosage fire today, except for the use of electronic scales, sprayers, etc..

Webster in the test is defined as follows: in metallurgy, determining the amount of a particular metal in an ore or alloy, especially the determination of the amount of gold or silver coins or bullion.

Although the most common definitions of the word test run around the determination of gold or silver in the ore and alloys, the assay itself is a much more extensive that involves the quantitative analysis of organic and inorganic chemicals. The main interest of this article is the analysis of metal ores. Because this is a very broad topic that has filled many books, highlights the fire assay process slagging gold in the samples will be summarized here.

Initially, the sample should be pulverized so that it can be tested. This powder is often called "dough" and scales to weigh what is called "scales pasta." Begins The tester run the sample in a mill. Along with many crushers, fine output is adjustable. The sample is not yet sufficiently well after initial grinding, so that the tester then puts on a "buck board" for additional spraying under a muller rubbing the material in a more fine movement with slip. Hard samples are finer with a device called a "rocker" which uses a heavier weight of the powdered sample. Testers are a smaller volume of work can use a mortar and pestle iron, even if it requires a lot more effort.

Such as spraying of the product of the ore sample, and the tester mixture divides the sample into smaller and smaller until it reduces the amount of sample to be that effectively treat called "splitting". This can be done manually or by using devices designed to facilitate the sampling process. This is done to ensure consistency in the sample and to increase the accuracy of the assay to be performed.

When the sample was sufficiently pulverized it must be run through sieve size. Material which does not pass through to be ground until the entire sample passes through the screen, called "screening". Which is passed through the sieve must then be thoroughly mixed and then stored in a labeled container. The contents of these containers should not be shaken or stirred, as this may cause the material to begin with stratification according to their masses and upset the accuracy of the process.

Various parts of the vessel, called "cone and quartering" selected parts of the sample are removed and weighed. The weighed sample is then placed in a scorifier, a dish that can withstand the heat of the oven testers. Litharge with sample (a form of lead), various chemicals which help enable metal in the sample to separate the slag is included.

This blend is roasted in the oven at the tester, called an "oven test" until the molten slag completely covers the head pearl formed in the scorifier.

The sample in the scorifier then poured into the mold cup of slagging. Here it is allowed to remain until cold. Once cold, the sample is removed from the mold. Is cone-shaped, with the metal at the tip of the cone and the slag forming the bottom. The piece of metal or a button of lead is detached from the slag. This button can then be hammered into a cube without sharp corners. The button is placed in a "cup" of appropriate size which is then placed in the oven. Cups are made of a material called bone ash. When it came to the heat, the button is placed in the cup. In this process lead and other impurities within the key are both driven and oxidized in the material itself of the cup. A good cup is able to absorb its weight in litharge (lead in the sample). The molten metal in the cup and there will become smaller as the process goes.

Towards the end of the process, the surface tension of the metal will result in the form of a bead. The heel does not seem to be moving fast and when the process is complete, release optical energy can sometimes be seen as a "flash" or "Blick". At this stage, the cupelation is finished and the cup with the ball can be removed from the oven.

Now the ball is removed from the cup. The composition of the pearl should now be gold and silver. The bead is weighed into a ladder type made specifically for this task called "scale button." Scales buttons, because they measure something so small, must be very precise and are always closed, while scales of analysis or the pulp does not always require pregnant. pearl weighing showed how metal is there, but did not say how much gold and how much money.

The next step assay is called "separation." In this step the gold and silver are separated from each other by a solution. Weighing heel is flattened, placed in a porcelain dish and treated with a solution of water and nitric acid. Once the reaction begins, the capsule is heated. Silver bead in the shape of a solution of silver nitrate is washed thoroughly until the gold, if any, remains. This is gently dried in porcelain dish, and then deleted.

The final sample of gold is again weighed in the balance knob, unless it is too small to be weighed, in which case it is simply described as a "trace" or "color". From the mass of the bead the tester calculates the value of the ore of gold and silver per ton of ore. The tester may use a particular set of weight when weighing tons determination of gold more easily calculate the test value of the ore.

In Summary, Fire Assaying is a three-step process

1. Fusion - The sample is mixed with the stream, and then heated at 1850A ° Fahrenheit. A slag containing the undesirable elements and a four-lead containing silver and gold are formed.
2. Cupeling - Knob lead is heated and oxidized in a cup of bone ash which adsorbs lead oxide, leaving a noble metal ball in the cup.
3. Cutting and weighing - In this part of the process, gold is separated from the money. Two weighing steps are involved.

Discussion of Fire Assaying's Purported Problems

Fire Assaying   is a series of chemical steps that takes advantage of the chemical behavior of the precious metal. Those who claim they have no measurable fire or say they have a chemical that does not behave like gold. The arguments used to explain why fire assay is not applicable t them "colloidal" or "Micron" or generally fall into one of three categories described below.

"The particles are so small that they vaporize and are therefore not in the button.

1850 ° is less than the melting point of gold. Even if the temperature exceeds 1850 ° the vapor pressure of gold is low. Very little loss. H2O, for example, has a vapor pressure of 6 orders of magnitude higher.
"Small particles of gold float on the surface of the water so that they float on the slag."
This ignores the process continues. It does not depend on gravity. The PbO2, Pb now, dissolves gold. It is the Pb collects at the bottom of the crucible.
"Intervening elements hide the gold medal."
Mint of London published a dosage of 1000 mg of tellurium, 1 g Au, Pb and 25 g skipped the step of melting! Even if "worse" they could do was to lose almost half of gold. These conditions are very unlikely in a rock sample. What metals of the platinum group? These, when present, with a ratio of gold in the bead.

Fire Assaying  , in use for thousands of years, still stands the test of time.

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Highbanking Tips

While panning is, on its own, a means to finding and recovering gold, more seasoned prospectors tend to purchase a sluice box after about their first year in order to move more "material," the sand and gravel in which placer gold is found. Later on, a motorized highbanker, dredge, or highbanker/dredge combo becomes an attractive alternative.
Panning samples is still how the prospector finds the optimum place to obtain the most gold. You should always sample the same way each time: that is, if you use one shovel full of material in your pan when you dig your test hole, then use one shovel full in each following pan. If you dig six inches in the first hole, dig six inches in the following holes. That way, when you count the gold in each sample pan, you will have a base to work from. When the samples begin producing fewer pieces of gold to the pan, you will know to where you should go back in order to set up your prospecting operation.
Giving the owner the best attributes of both a floating dredge and a highbanking sluice box, the highbanker/dredge combo is two tools in one. The combo unit allows underwater prospecting plus it has the capability of moving 10 to 20 times the amount of material of a sluice either at the river's side or high-up on the river's bank and its prehistoric river terraces. With the pan and sluice box, you take the concentrates to the river. With a highbanker, you take the river to the gold.

Hints on setting up your highbanker/dredge
  • Add a T-valve to your pump so you can prime it with a bucket instead of thrusting the foot valve into the river.
  • Buy gray lay-flat hose, even though it costs 20 percent more than the blue, because it will last far longer.
  • Consider more costly quick-release connectors as they allow you to move more material in a given time period.
  • Cut lay-flat hose to no more than 50-foot lengths for ease of rolling, carrying, and storing.
  • Don't have the hose retailer put their connectors on your lay-flat hose--they're permanently mounted.
  • Always have an extra set of hose connectors at hand.
  • Use a 1 1/2-inch piece of pipe double-threaded for use as a male-to-male connector.
  • Use a 1 1/2-inch reducer to go from one hose size to another.
  • Make sure the spray bar end caps are loose enough to be removed so you can flush them out more easily.
  • Make sure the "grizzly" (parallel bars that sort out large rocks) are welded at both ends to keep rocks from sticking.
  • Adjust your hopper with a slope steep enough to wash material, but not so shallow that you can't pull out the bigger rocks.
  • Never pull the scalping mat from under the punch plate during operation--you won't be able to get it back in.
  • Buy a small level that will fit across the sluice box so you'll always be able to keep a level flow of water.
  • The new rule of thumb is: Angle your sluice 3/4 inch for each foot of sluice, or 3 inches for a 4-foot sluice box.
  • Use the highbanker knob to check for proper flow, then open it back up and adjust your pump's throttle for actual flow.
  • Whenever you can, put your pump upstream to make use of gravity, rather than downstream where you'll fight gravity.
  • Replace your sluice box commercial carpet with 3M Nomad Miners Moss for optimum gold retention.
  • Cut your Miners Moss in half as the resulting pieces will be much easier to put into your bucket for the "cleanup" process.
  • Weld 3-inch T-handles of 1/4-inch steel rod on the bolts of your frame stand to make loosening and tightening easier.
  • Modify all your equipment so that it can be set up and taken down without tools.
  • Make sure your "cleanup" bucket has a mouth wider than the end of the sluice box.

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Learn How to Modify Your Sluice

If you have any problems with your lock or float to be able to keep it where you want in the stream, you might want to reconsider.

If you've used a fishing lure with a duckbill on him and he staggered into the water, you'll notice that the faster you recover, the more she would plunge. The lowering of the lip or plate 20 degrees on a valve works the same way. All you have to do is choose where you want the stream and drop your lock. It will suck right down and you're in business! (If you do not have a lip or plate on the front of your lock, it is easy to construct.)

There are also some changes that have to do with ribbed rubber mat and Moss minor that you will find very advantageous to trap the finest gold and makes it much easier and faster to clean later.

If your lock screen not a gun, there is a helpful hint to rememdy this situation, too!

And equipment

For a flat lock, rivets, washers rivet pop, pop rivets and tools.
For a lock plate, aluminum parts for side cover cuts (cut to shape).
For a lock plate, a protractor.
For a lock without screening, some extruded aluminum mesh screen (see below).
Ribbed rubber mat.
RTV silicone adhesive waterproof.
Blue Moss minors.

For valves that do not have a screen Riple below the bar gun, you might be able to find an old pet sitting for a sliding door (or something similar on your purchase of equipment or materials in a store construction), and cut a piece of extruded aluminum mesh for a drive plate to put on top of the foam minors.


Remove riffles, gun screen and pad provided with your lock.
For a flat valve, cut the side pieces where the flare starts (see diagram).
Fold the rounded downwards at an angle of 20 degrees, by testing with a protractor.
Cut two pieces of aluminum foil to cover the cuts (see diagram) and pop rivets in place, using pop rosettes with rivet heads outside.
Take a good piece of ribbed rubber mat, cut it to the exact dimensions of your interior lock and paste the cutting mat down.
Replace the blue carpet with minors Moss, cut to the size of the first brew at the end of the lock.
Minor cover the foam with extruded aluminum screen.
Replace riffles.

Foam miners will collect and hold more gold and black sand carpet material that may have come with your lock and not clog nearly as fast as the carpet can. The ribbed rubber mat held gold and black sand from slipping out of the lock, but it cleans very easily. The screen creates more gun vortices, which allows more fine gold to settle.

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