Saturday, September 24, 2011

Mining regulation and education

 Ownership of mineral 
The government of New Zealand has all the oil of natural origin (including oil and gas), radioactive minerals, and gold and silver in New Zealand. Any person or company wanting to prospect, explore or mine these substances must be licensed under the Minerals Act 1991 and the Crown to pay the fees and charges specified. The same rules apply to coal and all other metal ores and non-metallic aggregates and on land owned by the Crown.
Extraction of minerals and aggregates other than petroleum, radioactive minerals and gold and silver on private land requires the consent of the landowner in cooperation with the resource consents granted by local authorities under the provisions of Act resource management.

Environment and safety regulation 
The Resource Management Act 1991 and its amendments is the major piece of environmental legislation which controls land use. It has a comprehensive framework for the development and protection of almost all the physical and natural. Mining is excluded from the provision of the Act on sustainability, but that mining invariably involves the use and modification of the earth, all other parties apply.
Local authorities (district and regional councils) are responsible for administering the Act on the management of resources. Most jurisdictions have incorporated the local rules and guidelines for the extraction of minerals in their district plans.
Workplace safety is covered by the Health and Safety at Work Act 1992. Special rules for mining are covered in HSE (Mining Administration) Regulations 1996.
Corporate training 
Because of the skills required in the various aspects of mining and the dangers of working with explosives and heavy machinery, the qualifications have long been required to conduct many aspects of mining. In the 19th century, the government has set up a network of schools of mines that provided a practical and theoretical training. The Otago School of Mines, University of Otago, produces graduates in mining engineering. These schools were all closed.
In the 2000s the Extractive Industries Training Organisation (EXITO) offers a range of qualifications covering both underground and open pit, mineral and petrochemical processing, the use of explosives and electrical engineering.
No university education in mining or mining engineering is available in New Zealand, and those who need higher qualifications required to study abroad.

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